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Julius Caesar was the final leader of the Roman Republic. C., by opponents in the Roman Senate who were concerned that he had amassed too much power. Octavian had gained for himself the Republic’s ancient sacral title “Augustus” and was officially known as Imperator Caesar divi filius Augustus (“the Emperor Caesar Augustus, sacred son of god”). Luke 2:1), gradually consolidated virtual monarchic power in the imperial office, bringing the Roman Republic to a close and founding what is known as the “Principate.” Following his death in A. 14 each of his successors took the name “Caesar” as their imperial title. Wiersbe - Augustus Caesar was ruling, but God was in charge, for He used Caesar's edict to move Mary and Joseph eighty miles from Nazareth to Bethlehem to fulfill His Word. (583) (apographo from apo = from grapho = to write)) is used here literally of citizens enrolled or registered, e.g., as occurred in an official registration in tax lists. Agographo is translated in the NAS: census be taken(1), enrolled(1), register(1), register for the census(1). There is no record that Augustus ever ordered such a census, and there is dispute over whether Quirinius was indeed governor of Syria at the time when Jesus was born. First, Quintilius Varus was governor of Syria from about 7 B. When it came time to begin the census, in about 8 or 7 B. A Latin inscription discovered in 1764 has been interpreted to refer to Quirinius as having served as governor of Syria on two occasions.In his testament he had adopted his nephew Octavian, who assumed not only the name “Caesar” but also the military support and ultimately the political power previously held by Julius Caesar. For an excellent brief summary of the political and military intrigue surrounding Julius and Augustus Caesar and the transition from the Republic to the Principate, see Koester, History, Culture and Religion of the Hellenistic Age, pp.298-307. As mentioned above, “Caesar” was a name when applied to Augustus, but a title when referring to his imperial successors. Rome took a census every fourteen years for both military and tax purposes, and each Jewish male had to return to the city of his fathers to record his name, occupation, property, and family. Caesar had a census on earth but God has a more important census in heaven the writer of Hebrews recording But you have come to Mount Zion and to the city of the living God, the heavenly Jerusalem, and to myriads of angels, 23to the general assembly and church of the firstborn who are enrolled (perfect tense = speaks of past completed action with ongoing effect or result. The fact that there is no independent record of such a census does not mean that it did not happen. C., Augustus entrusted Quirinius with the delicate problem in the volatile area of Palestine, effectively superseding the authority and governorship of Varus by appointing Quirinius to a place of special authority in this matter. It is possible that Luke 2:2 reads, “This census took place before Quirinius was governing Syria.” In this case, the Greek word translated “first” (prōtos) is translated as a comparative, “before.” Because of the awkward construction of the sentence, this is not an unlikely reading.
God is sovereign over everything, including the timing of events! Proverbs says that "The king's heart is like channels of water in the hand of the LORD; He turns it wherever He wishes" (Pr 21:1) and so in Luke's account we see God moving the heart of Augustus who, by his edict calling for a census, sets the historical stage for the Messiah to be born in Bethlehem.
Herod the Great reigned until 4 BC, meaning Jesus has to be born sometime before that time.
The mention of Quirinius as governor of Syria in Luke chapter 2 appears to cause a problem as history records that Quirinius held this office between AD 6–7, at least 10 years after the birth of Jesus according to Matthew and Luke.
The Bible does not provide the exact day or even the exact year in which Jesus was born in Bethlehem. It’s the day Christians have agreed to celebrate the birth of Jesus, but the exact day of His birth is unknown.
But a close examination of the chronological details of history narrows the possibilities to a reasonable window of time. What is known is that biblical and historical details point to an approximate year of birth. His birth changed history forever, along with the lives of countless people around the world.
Kaisar is used in the New Testament to refer to Augustus (Luke 2:1); Tiberius (Luke 3:1 - A. 14–37), who was emperor during Jesus’ ministry; Claudius (Acts 17:7 and Acts 18:2 - A. 41–54 ); and Nero (probably the Caesar to whom Paul appealed in Acts 25:8-12, mentioned specifically in the subscript to 2 Timothy - A. It is possible that the title “Caesar” is used figuratively to refer to any human ruler or to the state in general in Jesus’ famous aphorism, “Render to Caesar the things that are Caesar’s” (Mark -17; cf. However, the context of the politically sensitive issue of paying taxes to support the Roman occupation makes this figurative use unlikely. When Mary said "Be it unto me according to Thy word" (Luke ), it meant that from then on, her life would be a part of the fulfillment of divine prophecy. In past when we believed we were in a sense "enrolled" and our enrollment will endure forever and ever amen! Thus, Jesus was born in the later mid-years of his reign. We lack many historical records from the reign of Caesar Augustus. It has also been proposed that Quirinius was governor of Syria on two separate occasions, once while prosecuting the military action against the Homonadensians between 12 and 2 B. Regardless of which solution is accepted, it is not necessary to conclude that Luke has made an error in recording the historical events surrounding the birth of Jesus.
(Complete Biblical Library Greek-English Dictionary) Kaisar - Usage: Caesar(21), Caesar's(8). God had promised that the Saviour would be a human, not an angel (Gen. ) in heaven, and to God, the Judge of all, and to the spirits of [the] righteous made perfect, (Heb. First Census taken while Quirinius was governor of Syria - Critics of the inerrancy and inspiration of the Bible appeal to this passage as an example of an error. Ryrie on Quirinius was governor of Syria - Apparently he was governor of Syria twice: from 4 B. And the same is true regarding the years of Quirinius’ governorship. Dayton, Norman Giesler addresses a question critics raise noting that "Luke states that the census decreed by Augustus was the first one taken while Quirinius was governor of Syria. Luke has proven himself to be a reliable historian even in the details.Therefore many verses do not yet have notes, but if the Lord tarries and gives me breath, additions will follow in the future.The goal is to edify and equip you for the work of service (Eph -13-note) that the Lord God might be glorified in your life and in His Church.It may seem, to some of you, a strange thing that there should be an imperial edict, issued from Rome, which should have an important influence upon the place of birth of the Child; yet I do not doubt that, in God’s esteem, the whole of the great Roman Empire was of very small account in comparison with his Son, our Lord and Saviour, Jesus Christ; and today, the thrones and dominions of the mightiest monarchs are only like the small cogs of the wheels of divine providence where the welfare of even the least of the Lord’s people is concerned. The reign of the Roman Emperor Caesar Augustus was a time of relative peace on earth (the Pax Romana) and is one aspect of the "fullness of time" of which Paul spoke in Galatians 4:4-note writing "But when the fullness of the time came, God (Notice Who is in control of TIME! ) sent forth His Son, born of a woman, born under the Law." This "time was full" because several events converged by God's providential working: (1).He reckons not events according to their apparent importance; the standard of the sanctuary is a very different measure from that which worldlings use. Roman civilization had brought peace and a road system (2).As great as the Roman empire was, he certainly knew that Rome could not gather taxes beyond its own boundaries. The KJV translates it "(And this taxing was first made when Cyrenius was governor of Syria.)" Luke's Gospel is not only good news but it is a historically accurate record of the events surrounding the birth, life and death of the Messiah. " This is a question that has been a point of controversy among biblical scholars and skeptics for centuries.