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The success of Indian mathematics was mainly due to the fact that Indians had a clear conception of the abstract number as distinct from the numerical quantity of objects or spatial extension.Algebraic theories, as also other mathematical concepts, which were in circulation in ancient India, were collected and further developed by Aryabhatta, an Indian mathematician, who lived in the 5th century, in the city of Patna, then called Pataliputra.
Astronomy Ancient India’s contributions in the field of astronomy are well known and well documented.Al-Khawarizmi, a Persian mathematician, developed a technique of calculation that became known as “algorism.” This was the seed from which modern arithmetic algorithms have developed.Al-Khwarizmi’s work was translated into Latin under the title Algoritmi de numero Indorum, meaning The System of Indian Numerals.Another translation of the same work by English astronomer Henry Thomas Colebruke appeared next year in 1817.The credit for fine-tuning and internationalizing these mathematical concepts – which had originated in India – goes to the Arabs and Persians.The natural corollary were emergence of music and other forms of performing arts.
Mechanical & production technology – Greek historians have testified to smelting of certain metals in India in the 4th century BC.Arguably, the origins of Calculus lie in India 300 years before Leibnitz and Newton.Astronomy – Rig Veda (2000 BC) refers to astronomy.Science and technology in ancient and medieval India covered all the major branches of human knowledge and activities, including mathematics, astronomy, physics, chemistry, medical science and surgery, fine arts, mechanical and production technology, civil engineering and architecture, shipbuilding and navigation, sports and games Ancient India was a land of sages, saints and seers as well as a land of scholars and scientists.Ancient India’s contribution to science and technology include: Mathematics – Vedic literature is replete with concepts of zero, the techniques of algebra and algorithm, square root and cube root.In some instances, astronomical principles were borrowed to explain matters, pertaining to astrology, like casting of a horoscope.