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Bd infection has been documented in numerous frog species, some salamander species, and a single caecilian species (Typhlonectes sp.) in captivity (Raphael and Pramuk 2007, unpublished abstract). Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in arboreal and lotic water sources in Panama. Crochet, P.-A., Chaline, O., Cheylan, M., and Guillaume, C.

However, examination of dead frogs from the 1993 Big Tableland die-off revealed a parasitic infection of the skin; subsequently the parasite was identified as a chytrid fungus and tests confirmed its involvement in amphibian deaths (Berger et al. By that time declines had also been noted in an endemic Tasmanian species, the Tasmanian tree frog (Litoria burrowsae), and mass mortality events had been reported in suburban populations of juvenile Litoria ewingi, the whistling tree frog (Obendorf 2005). Strategies for Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis survival and pathogenesis, Part 2. The earliest museum specimen in each zone with signs of Bd infection dates to December 1978 for the east coast (Conondale Range, southern Queensland), October 1985 for the southwest, May 1996 for Adelaide, and 2004 for Tasmania (Obendorf 2005). The biology and recent history of the Critically Endangered Kihansi Spray Toad in Tanzania. At least one Australian frog species, the sharp-snouted torrent frog (Taudactylus acutirostris) is known to have been driven to extinction by Bd, with the last wild population crashing in September 1993 and the last captive animal dying from Bd in the Melbourne Zoo in 1995 (Speare and Berger 2005). Rapid amphibian declines in mainland Australia began in the late 1970s in southern Queensland, near Brisbane (Czechura and Ingram 1990) and continued northward to central eastern Queensland in the mid-1980s. Journal of East African Natural History 95: 117-138. At least one ranid species, the American bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) appears to be a carrier of Bd, harbors high diversity in Bd genotypes and may be responsible to at least some extent for transporting Bd around the world (Rosenblum et al. Neither amphibian declines nor Bd were detected during the first four years of monitoring, from 2000-2004 (Lips et al. In late September 2004 the first live Bd-infected frog was found; eleven days later the first dead Bd-positive frog was found and mortality abruptly spiked sharply with dead Bd-infected frogs found from 57% of the species and all seven frog families present at the site (Lips et al. In Europe, fatal outbreaks of chytridiomycosis in wild amphibians were first confirmed in PeÒalara National Park (Parque Nacional de la Cumbre, Circo y Lagunas de PeÒalara) in the Sierra del Guadarrama, central Spain, in 1997 (Bosch et al. Bd is now broadly distributed across Europe, in Spain (Garner et al. In Spain, Bd distribution appears to have arisen from a single recent introduction into the Pyrenees Mountains (bordering Spain and France), and either multiple introductions or a single more ancient introduction onto the Iberian Peninsula (Walker et al. The Iberian Peninsula Bd genotypes cluster with a North American clade in phylogenetic analysis, indicating that at least one introduction may have occurred from North America (Walker et al. In France, the only published report so far of Bd infections is on introduced bullfrogs, at Loir et Cher, Bordeaux, and Archachon (Garner et al. In Italy, Bd-infected introduced bullfrogs have been recorded (Garner et al. One report of wild Bd-infected moor frogs (Rana arvalis) has been published (Mutschmann 2000). In South America, Bd appears to be widespread (Carnaval et al. Bd-positive swabs have been recorded from all countries in South America that have been tested; there are no data yet from French Guiana, Guyana, Paraguay, or Surinam (see Chytrid fungus infects high-altitude stream-dwelling Hylodes magalhaesi (Leptodactylidae) in the Brazilian Atlantic rainforest. However, surveys in June 1985 (just three months later) looking for higher-elevation populations of Rheobatrachus vitellinus revealed no trace of this species (Mc Donald 1990). Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis and the collapse of anuran species richness and abundance in the upper Manu National Park, southeastern Peru.

Rheobatrachus vitellinus has not been recorded since March 1985; Taudactylus eungellensis has not been seen since June of 1986 (Mc Donald 1990). In 1993, amphibian populations at Big Tableland (near Cookstown in north Queensland) suffered mass mortality and crashed suddenly, and this time amphibian biologists were able to collect dead frogs rather than simply noting that numbers had declined. In some species, lowland populations were able to persist while high-elevation populations vanished.

2003), suggesting they may act as reservoirs of Bd infection (e.g., the Eastern tiger salamander, Ambystoma tigrinum).

Weinstein (2009) found that although infected field-collected salamanders (Batrachoseps attenuatus) had 100% mortality when brought into captivity, salamanders inoculated with Bd in captivity and housed in dry microhabitats (to mimic summer estivation) were all able to clear Bd infection.

2005) and in Elachistocleis bicolor, in lowland northeastern Argentinian Atlantic forest (Arellano et al.

2009), and two species of Telmatobius in northwest Argentina have been reported as infected (Barrionuevo and Mangione 2006).

In North America, Bd has been found in Canada and the United States (Ouellet et al. While salamanders can be susceptible to Bd, salamander declines in the United States so far appear to be associated more with ranavirus outbreaks than with Bd, and some U. salamander species may be carriers of Bd (e.g., Jancovich et al. In contrast, Bd is probably involved in salamander declines in Mexico and Central America (Rovito et al. The 1961 Bd-infected Canadian specimen is a Rana clamitans from Quebec (Ouellet et al. In Guatemala, high-elevation salamander communities collapsed beginning in the 1980s, particularly terrestrial microhabitat specialists as compared to arboreal species or microhabitat generalists (Rovito et al. It has been postulated that population density differences may explain this pattern of decline, with terrestrial species having higher density and higher Bd transmission rates (Cheng et al. For instance, two of the Guatemalan salamander species found in abundance in the 1970s (Pseudoeurycea brunnata and Pseudoeurycea goebeli) had completely disappeared from the study sites by the time of surveys in 2005, 2006, and 2007 (Rovito et al. It is difficult to pinpoint exactly when declines occurred, because civil unrest in Guatemala made survey work almost impossible during the time period from 1979-2005 (Rovito et al. 2009), with prevalence especially high in Spain and Switzerland (Garner et al. In Spain, chytridiomycosis outbreaks occurred first in 1997, then again in 19 (Bosch et al. Thousands of midwife toads (Alytes obstetricans) were found dead, nearly extirpating these populations (Bosch et al. Beginning in 1999, significant chytrid-related die-offs were also seen in fire salamanders (Salamandra salamandra) in PeÒalara National Park (Bosch and MartÌnez-Solano 2006). perezi is found to be a carrier of Bd, similar to Rana catesbeiana, this may represent a situation similar to that reported by Seimon et al. In Great Britain, Bd-positive amphibian specimens have been recorded, though the species was not noted (Garner et al.

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