Dating norms in different countries

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It is a relational idea: ‘the opposition of one community to others or to other social entities’ (op. This leads us to the question of boundary – what marks the beginning and end of a community?Cohen’s argument is that boundaries may be marked on a map (as administrative areas), or in law, or by physical features like a river or road. However, not all boundaries are so obvious: ‘They may be thought of, rather, as existing in the minds of the beholders’ (Cohen 1985: 12).

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It comes close to the third of the ideals that were inscribed on many of the banners of the French Revolution – fraternity (the others, as you will most likely remember, were liberty and equality).

Here we will focus on understandings within social theory – and ask why should educators be interested in them?

It is helpful to begin by noting that community can be approached as a value (Frazer 2000: 76).

(Frazer 1999: 24) Each has expression has its own symbols and markers of boundaries defining who is ‘in communion’ or ‘in community’, and who is not. (1984) The Supportive Network, London: Allen and Unwin. Jefferys (ed.) Growing Old in the Twentieth Century, London: Routledge. Acknowledgement: The picture ‘Happy colors in the sky’ is by rogilde and is reproduced here under a Creative Commons Licence (Attribution-Non-Commercial-No Derivative Works 2.0 Generic).

The defining of a boundary places some people within, and some beyond the line. Community, conversation, action, Buckingham: Open University Press. (1997) On Tolerance, New Haven: Yale University Press.

contents: approaching the theory of community · community and boundary · community and network · community – norms and habits · social capital and community · communion and community · further reading · references · links · how to cite this article Since the late nineteenth century, ‘the use of the term community has remained to some extent associated with the hope and the wish of reviving once more the closer, warmer, more harmonious type of bonds between people vaguely attributed to past ages’ (Elias 1974, quoted by Hoggett 1997: 5). Galpin in relation to delineating rural communities in terms of the trade and service areas surrounding a central village (Harper and Dunham 1959: 19).

Before 1910 there was little social science literature concerning ‘community’ and it was really only in 1915 that the first clear sociological definition emerged. A number of competing definitions of community quickly followed.

Place and interest communities may well coincide – for example in the case of places where many of those who live there work in the same industry – such as was the case in ‘mining villages’.

Willmott (1989) argues that it is legitimate to add a third understanding of community – that of attachment – as communities of place or interest may not have a sense of shared identity. Cohen’s (1982; 1985) work around belonging and attachment is a great help in this respect.

the Christian ideal of the communion of saints and the congregation and the Eucharist as forms of community; the centrality of umma or community in Islamic traditions and contemporary practice and theology; community is prominent theme in Judaism, and in Buddhism. Patterns and prospects, London: Policy Studies Institute.

(Confucianism is not, of course, a religion, but neo-Confucianism is closely intertwined with Buddhism and with traditional religious cults of the family and ancestors, and Confucian norms of family and community life are politically significant in many contemporary contexts. (1989) ‘Support networks in old age – constructing a typology’ in M. (1995) ‘A comparison of urban and rural support networks’, Ageing and Society 15: 59-81. (1986) Social Networks, Informal Care and Public Policy, London: Policy Studies Institute. Bowling Alone: set of pages linked to the book that includes downloadable datasets. (2001) ‘Community’ in the encyclopedia of informal education,

The definition of ‘community’ or ‘communion’ can, thus, become an exclusionary act.